Remote Work: Major Consideration For Silicon Valley People Now

As the epidemic recedes, is hybrid working still the way to go? Silicon Valley now appears to be an important indicator.

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In 2022, people will begin to return to their old ways of living and working as different policies are gradually relaxed around the world. Over the past two years, many companies have had to implement remote work in a short period of time and have learned how to effectively implement a hybrid work model, which means remote work and office work at the same time, to ensure employee safety while reducing the impact of COVID-19 on business operations. As the epidemic recedes, is hybrid working still the way to go? Silicon Valley now appears to be an important indicator.

Apple Inc. ended its two-year work-from-home policy during the COVID-19 pandemic on April 11, and its employees began returning to the office today. While many technology companies have offered some employees the option to work from home permanently, Apple is not one of them. She made it clear that employees will eventually need to return to work in the office.

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在過去一年中,我們見證着辦公室文化的重大變化。例如蘋果公司近日公布準備今年9月,實行的全新辦公模式,要求員工一週內至少有三天必須回到辦公室工作,但不少蘋果員工發起連署,希望向公司爭取更充分的彈性辦公模式。微軟最新的《Microsoft 2021 工作趨勢指數報告》亦都指出,66%香港僱員希望繼續維持靈活的辦公模式,65%的香港企業領袖亦計劃也為未來實行混合辦公模式而重新設計辦公室。


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What does the open source concept bring us?

Compared to traditional software that charges a one-off fee or a recurring subscription fee, open source software goes in a completely different direction. And various business giants are embracing this new path.

Average users may be confused by the concept of open source, normally you have to pay for softwares on the market, no matter whether it is a game, a word processor, or an operating system, in the form of the traditional one-off charge or the popular Software as a Service (SaaS) subscription pricing nowadays. The software does not give you direct access to the source code, and all source code is encrypted before it is released to the market so that no one can  copy it easily. Some companies even resell source code patents from other companies as a way to make money. 

However, open source software is the opposite of traditional software: it allows others to use the source code of the software to create their own software for other purposes in a specific software agreement. Under the BSD License (as defined in the BSD License), some rights are reserved for others to learn, modify, and transfer to anyone regardless of your purpose. The software is distributed, often openly and collaboratively developed and improved in the interactive communities across the web. The representatives of these are Mozilla Firefox and Android.

Many large business organizations prohibit their employees from using open source software because the security level may not meet the requirements of the organizations, and a large number of security tests have to be conducted beforehand. However, the federal government of Germany, governments of Brazilian and various universities are actively encouraging their employees to use open source software. In addition to the lower cost of software, they also want to reduce reliance on software from foreign companies.

Open-source software is more and more recognized by large business organizations and is even considered as a golden egg. In July 2019, IBM paid US$190 per share, or US$34 billion, to acquire a well-known open-source operating system developer, IBM Corporation Red Hat to co-develop a next-generation hybrid cloud platform. In 2018, Microsoft spent $7.5 billion to acquire colocation GitHub, a service platform for a wide range of open source software sources, shaken off its perennial image of being relatively closed, and has emphasized the importance of the GitHub will “reinforce a free, open, and innovative approach to developers,” in the spirit of developers first, with Microsoft’s Each maintains its own independent mode of operation. Businesses now see open source as a tremendous resource that would revitalize the businesses itself.

“Joining forces with IBM gives Red Hat the opportunity to bring more open source innovation to an even broader range of organizations and will enable us to scale to meet the need for hybrid cloud solutions that deliver true choice and agility.” JIM WHITEHURST, PRESIDENT AND CEO, RED HAT

The concept of open source is no longer limited to the realm of software, RISC-V is an example of “open source hardware”. Likewise, commercial chip vendors such as ARM and MIPS spend a lot of money on CPU design due to their expertise in different areas. Given the huge resources invested, these suppliers have to charge high licensing fees for the use of their patents and copyrights in order to survive. They also sign confidentiality agreements to protect their suppliers’ rights before using their advantageous design files and command sets. However, these traditional protection techniques stifle the development of the public, low-cost, free and open source software compilers and operating systems. RISC-V was born from the premise of pioneering “open source hardware”.

RISC-V is a simple, completely open source architecture that allows anyone to design, manufacture, and market RISC-V chips and software for the benefit of the public. The RISC-V Foundation is supported by many technology giants without paying royalties to companies. Google, Qualcomm, Microsoft, Huawei, Alibaba, Fidelity and others have joined the RISC-V Foundation. With strong funding from the Indian Government, RISC-V has become the national instruction set of India. Microsoft has also taken the lead as the OpenPOWER Foundation to promote its RISC-V program. This year, the company announced that it has merged into the Linux Foundation and is developing its open source Power chip. In addition, the company has developed the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) to enable PowerChip without the need to pay royalty.

Currently, large commercial chip suppliers such as ARM and Intel dominate the processor market for many tablet computers and smart phones. With IoT on the horizon, the demand for chips is increasing. The emergence of “open-source hardware” such as RISC-V and power chips is poised to bring competition to the chip industry, making the overall chip market more competitive. The economic benefits of lower development costs are enormous, and lower development costs help to drive the development of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, supercomputers, data warehousing and data warehousing, analytics and IoT technology development.

The “open source hardware” also addresses some current geopolitical issues. As the technology war between two major political parties, the U.S. and China, is intensifying, many global software and hardware companies suffer under the conflict of power. The ZTE and Huawei incidents in 2018 forced China to look for a new way out for its hardware.

In the words of the RISC-V Foundation’s China advisory board chairman, Fang Zhixi:

“A typical example is Loongson. A chip is still a commodity, no matter how high the performance is, if no one uses it, it has no value, so there must be a corresponding ecosystem to give full play to its value. There are many Chinese companies making x86, Arm, and IBM Power chips, and the second way is to follow others. In some specific areas, there are things that can be done with these instruction set architectures, but they are subject to the ISA’s intellectual property (IP) rights. The lack of intellectual property restrictions on “open source hardware” such as RISC-V makes it difficult to succeed.”

The lack of intellectual property restrictions on “open source hardware” such as RISC-V makes it difficult for China, India, and other countries that do not have the ability to control RISC-V to succeed. Countries that manufacture their own chips are able to develop their own chips on a common basis, reducing their dependence on foreign technology. This allows the development of technology in different places to be less adversely affected by geopolitical changes and conflicts.

The introduction of the concept of “open source” can also improve the corporate culture which is technologically closed, and enable users to make use of their open source technology to develop their own chips. Compare the functional part with other products, this enables different technology products to be publicly verified, increasing their transparency and market competitiveness.

The open source concept can bring us a more free, open and innovative technology development base, improving the technology R&D environment, and at the same time adding new impetus to the existing technology industry. It is foreseeable in the future that enterprises around the world will be able to break through the past business limitations, and the development of technology as a whole may benefit from this.

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淺談 2020 提出的網站性能基準(一):最大內容繪製LCP
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今年因為全球肺炎持續肆虐,令到不少的公開活動都轉戰線上播放,而Google 一年一度的 LIVE 亦不能倖免。不過,轉為線上舉辦活動並不代表內容有所失色。

Google 經常更新網站性能的指標和工具,務求在衡量網站方面的用戶體驗與時並進,使得無論各類用家、企業、開發者在哪種網絡環境、使用哪種設備瀏覽也好,亦能獲得最佳的網站使用體驗。那讓我們來看看今年Google 提出的網站性能基準,Core Web Vital吧。

今年 的 Core Web Vital 有三項,包括:

  1. LCP — Largest Contentful Paint 最大內容繪製;
  2. FID — First Input Delay 首次輸入延遲;
  3. CLS — Cumulative Layout Shift 累計版面配置轉移;

Largest Contentful Paint 最大內容繪製

LCP 是一個量度網頁載入速度的指標。相比起First contentful paint (FCP) 量度從頁面開始載入到屏幕上,呈現頁面內容任何部分的時間,LCP量度頁面載入時,主要或是最大的內容載入/繪製,並展示到網站用戶可見視野範圍的時間。快速的LCP象徵著能夠使用戶確信信該網頁頁面對他們有用

要理解甚麼是 LCP,我們可以透過在哪些狀況下,會影響網頁載入LCP 的速度:

  1. 緩慢的伺服器回應時間
  2. 阻礙網頁繪製的JavaScript 和 CSS 檔案
  3. 緩慢的資源載入時間
  4. 客戶端的網頁繪製


但其實在不少設備的Retina屏幕上,用戶都無法分辨高解析度和一般解析度的圖像,而太大容量的圖像,會阻礙網頁的載入,使得客戶的使用體驗質素下降。所以,要將圖像解析度,與網頁的載入速度作出相應的平衡,至為重要。將圖像轉為WebP 這類能夠減少檔案大小、但仍然維持和JPEG格式相同圖片品質的類型,亦能夠減少圖像檔案在網路上的傳送時間。

另外,JavaScript 、 CSS 這裡幫助網頁建構的檔案,它們的載入先後、所需時間,亦都和網頁載入的速度有關。Google 亦建議除了這些的檔案大小外,亦可以留意其放置來源的回應時間是否理想,例如放置在CDN(內容傳遞網路),就能夠利用最靠近每位網頁使用者的伺服器,更快、更可靠地將圖片、影片等檔案傳送給用家。

那什麽才能得到好的LCP分數? Google 建議網頁開發者,應該努力使得網頁在頁面開始載入的2.5秒內,完成最大內容繪製(LCP)。2.5秒-4.0秒被視為需要改進,而多過4.0秒去完成最大內容繪製則視為表現差劣。而為了確保達到滿足大多數用戶這個目標,衡量準則為在移動裝備和桌面設備上,整個網站的內容要有75百分位數能得到好的LCP分數。


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通過會議室智能化,能夠方便會議排程的計劃,以及增加安排會議的可行程度。 這意味著員工可以遙距為會議預留最合適的房間,並且預約所需的設備,以及聯絡所有與會者。所有這些動作都再無需透過電話和秘書進行預約,只需在手機上按幾下就能夠簡單完成。 對於管理者來說,這亦意味著能夠進行實時檢測,確定各房間以及設施的使用實況。


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智能辦公室能夠為企業提供一個功能齊全、符合員工需要、具有吸引力的工作場所。透過使用現今的科技,創造更好的員工體驗、提升企業的生產力。 通過使用互相連結的智能設備,在舒適度、效率和企業安全之間作出適當的平衡,並透過自動化系統,從簡單的空間導航,到企業安全、庫存、設施消耗、訪客等等,都能協助員工減省日常管理程序,將生產力、時間投放到更有價值的工作範疇之上。

想立即將辦公室升級?可以了解一下 Bookings ONE如何能夠提供最好的用戶體驗。不論是管理層還是員工的需求,都能一一滿足,從而提升公司形象和員工整體工作效率。

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Code 寫得好對公司有用嗎?」這一篇我們談到Martin Fowler如何分析軟件質素和開發時間的兩難,這次就讓我們看看Robert C. Martin 在其近作《Clean Architecture: A Craftsman’s Guide to Software Structure and Design》對於軟件開發時,軟件工程師所面對的難題。

還原基本步,軟件本身究竟對於軟件的持份者有何價值?Robert C. Martin認為主要有兩種:行為價值(Behavior)和結構價值(Structure)。

行為價值,意思即是軟件本身的用途。首先軟件會被設計成使得某個機器以指定的方式運作,並因而可以幫助開發方創造或提高利潤。而軟件工程師則是負責幫助系統的使用者建立一套對於這個軟件系統的功能定義(functional specification),或者是其需求文檔(requirements document),然後編寫相應的程式使得機器能夠符合這些要求、定義。而當程式的運作不符要求,軟件工程師就要負責除錯,並解決問題。




對於軟件的持份者來說,他們所提出的一系列改變的範圍都是大概類似的。但在軟件工程師來說,處理持份者的改變就如要持續將一堆拼圖塊,拼到同一個愈變複雜的拼圖裏。Robert C. Martin比喻為將方形的螺絲擰進圓形的螺絲孔裏,因為現有的系統的「形狀」(shape)不會和要求的「形狀」相同。





如果問一個業務部經理,答案自不然是前者,並認為現時的功能比起往後的靈活度重要,而不少開發者亦會跟隨這種說法。不過,Robert C. Martin認為後者比前者來得重要,他舉例說:

  1. 如果一個程式能夠正常運作,但完全無法改變的話,那麼當需求改變,程式就不能夠運作,而開發者亦無從將之改變。程式就等同垃圾。
  2. 如果一個程式目前未能正常運作,但容易改變的話,開發者就能使其運作正常,便可以隨著需求改變加以修改。程式就能夠持續有用。



The Eisenhower Matrix

Robert C. Martin 提到一個分析難題的方法: The Eisenhower Matrix。

難題通常有兩種,緊急的和重要的。通常緊急的都不特別重要,而重要的都不特別緊急。而系統的功能就是前者,而系統的架構就落入後者。而在The Eisenhower Matrix裡頭,就分為四種:

  1. 緊急而重要的;
  2. 不緊急但重要的;
  3. 緊急但不重要的;
  4. 不緊急又不重要的;


Robert C. Martin指出,分析事情重不重要,責任不在業務部門,因為他們沒有能力去分別。所以開發者為了公司長遠利益,應該有責任去指出事情的優次為何,而和各部門的作出持續掙扎,其他的部門亦應如此。


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1. 缺乏互相接觸,難以獨自處理工作


2. 無法掌握工作時間,導致壓力過大


3. 疏離感大增


4. 工作環境周圍的騷擾


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1. 訂定針對遠端工作的模式



2. 提供有效的線上通信軟件

僅僅只是利用電子郵件溝通是遠遠不夠的,近來各種針對視像會議的通信軟件一炮而紅,例如 Slack, Zoom, Microsoft Teams等等。這些軟件可以提供許多很多面對面對話的機會,尤其是針於較小的工作團體。視像會議能夠增加各自在家的同事互相了解之餘,也有助於減少員工因為遠端工作而產生的孤獨感。


3. 增加員工社交機會,加強精神支援與鼓勵





如何能夠將辦公室數碼化,迎接數碼時代的來臨?可以了解一下 Bookings ONE如何能夠提供嶄新的智能辦公室體驗。不論是管理層還是員工的需求,都能一一滿足。


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設施使用的數據不僅在工作空間使用初期有所幫助,亦能理解員工的日常行為和工作流程。 收集會議室使用率的數據,可以幫助企業以確保員工能夠充分利用所提供的空間,並在設施上進行相應的修改。 這不僅可以提高員工的工作體驗,還可以確保企業盡量將設施用得其所。

哪些日子最多人使用某些設施? 哪些工作空間過於繁忙? 而哪些工作空間沒員工肯利用?這些問題都能輕易用數據回答,省卻以往要處理大量的文書工作。


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配合圖像化的數據分析,亦能為企業管理者理解各個時段的會議室使用率、各人的使用時間、 因失約導致房間空置的次數等等,從而讓企業更了解公司會議室有否被充分利用,並更有效運用、分配公司的空間資源,為員工提供更合適的工作環境。



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tl;dr, 沒有測試談不上好軟件!

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軟件編碼的質素和一間公司發展的關係,在之前的文章《Code 寫得好對公司有用嗎?》已有討論,那麼有什麼因素會左右編碼的質素?其中一樣就是軟件測試。

軟件測試(Software testing),指的是透過測試以作鑑定軟件的品質,及早找出軟件中的程式錯漏,並驗證軟件是否適合使用。軟件測試主要以運行軟件的某部分元件,評估該部分是否正常運作或合乎一些基本標準,如:

- 符合軟件設計及開發要求;
- 正確地回應各類型的輸入;
- 在可接受的時間內執行所需功能;
- 軟件功能可使用度高;
- 可以在預期的環境中安裝和運行;
- 可以達到持份者期望的總體結果;


不少軟件公司都會聘請專責品質保證 (Quality Assurance,縮寫為 QA) 的員工,在軟件推出之前進行一系列的人手測試。不過,這種比較傳統的測試方法往往有不少問題。



近年DevOps的出現,就嘗試解決QA的工序冗長問題。在DevOps的環境下,開發人員 (Dev)、技術運營(Ops)和品質保證並非各自運行,而是傾向在每一次程式發布都有緊密合作。DevOps 希望藉著採用敏捷(Agile)般的開發方式,減少每一次編碼的變更範圍,使得每次部署不會對軟件生產系統造成巨大影響,軟件得以平滑的速率逐漸生長。開發人員亦使用各種自動化的測試,配合持續交付( Continuous delivery,縮寫為 CD)和持續整合( Continuous integration,縮寫為 CI),確保軟件本身不受編碼改動影響之餘,亦能將QA繁瑣重複的工作分攤, 減少每次部署出錯。



  1. 單元測試 Unit test,是針對軟件組成的元件進行測試,其目的在於檢驗軟件基本組成單位是否正常運作。
  2. 整合測試 Integration test,是將程式模組採用適當的整合組裝,並對系統的介面及整合後的功能進行測試,其目的在於檢查軟件單位之間的介面是否運作正常。
  3. 功能測試 Functional test,是針對軟件功能進行測試,其目的在於檢驗軟件是否正常運作,並是否實現業務上的要求。




  1. 當軟件進行開發時,測試主要為了配合開發人員工作,盡快從系統得到回饋,所以多以單元測試為主;
  2. 在預備環境,這階段主要偵測問題,如問題發生,則停止軟件部署。通常所有測試皆符合此階段;
  3. 在生產環境,主要會運行如冒煙測試(smoke test)等比較快速的功能測試,在有限的時間內廣泛涵蓋測試軟件的主要功能。


我們 ONEs Software 是一家香港的軟件開發公司,致力於通過我們專業的技術,為企業設計出最合適的軟件。如果您有興趣,歡迎與我們聯繫一起探討,為您的企業成長注入新的源動力。 更多資訊可以留意 ONES Publication 定期發佈的文章,亦可以聯絡我們,我們的網址是:

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How DevOps is Killing QA



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一般的用家可能會對 open source 開源這個概念感到疑惑:正常在市面上的軟件,不論是遊戲、文書、作業系統,通常都是收費,由以前一次收費到現在流行的 Software as a Service (SaaS)定期訂閱收費模式。這些軟件不會讓你直接接觸到軟件的源碼,所有源碼都加密好才推出市面,以免其他人能夠輕易複製自己的軟件作其他用途。有些公司甚至透過購買其他公司的源碼專利,以作為賺錢的途徑。

“Org charts” comic by Manu Cornet

不過,開源軟件就是走傳統軟件的相反方向:它任由他人取用軟件本身的源碼,在指定的軟件協定下(如BSD授權條款)保留一部分權利,而允許他人以學習、修改和以任何目的向任何人分發該軟件,並常常在網絡的互動社群中被公開和合作開發、改良。最有代表性的軟件莫過於網頁瀏覽器 Mozilla Firefox 和 行動作業系統 Android。


開源軟件漸漸受大型商業機構認可,甚至視為金蛋。今年7月 IBM就以每股190美元、 總值340億美元收購知名開源作業系統的開發商 Red Hat,以共同開發次世代的混合雲端平台。2018 微軟亦花了75億美元收購代管眾多開源軟件源碼的服務平台 GitHub,以擺脫多年來相對封閉的形象,亦強調 GitHub 會「加強對開發者自由、開放、創新程度」, 秉持開發者優先的精神,與微軟各自保持獨立的營運模式。由此可見,商業機構現在已經視開源為一種使到其本身得以活化的龐大資源。

Joining forces with IBM gives Red Hat the opportunity to bring more open source innovation to an even broader range of organizations and will enable us to scale to meet the need for hybrid cloud solutions that deliver true choice and agility. - JIM WHITEHURST, PRESIDENT AND CEO, RED HAT


開源的概念亦已不限於軟件的領域,RISC-V就是一個 「開源硬體」的例子。同樣地,一般ARM和MIPS等商業晶片供應商因為設計CPU時牽涉不同專業範疇,所花的資源龐大,這些供應商自然要對使用其專利、版權的人士,收取高額的授權費用,才能得以生存。使用其具優點的設計檔案和指令集前,亦簽署保密協定,以保障供應商的權益。但這些傳統的保護手法,卻窒礙開發公共、低成本、自由及開放的源碼軟體編譯器和作業系統。 RISC-V 就在開拓「開源硬體」的前提底下得以誕生。

RISC-V 架構簡單、完全開源,允許任何人設計、製造和銷售RISC-V晶片和軟體而不必支付任何公司專利費之下,得到不少科技巨頭的支援。 Google、高通、微軟、華為、阿里巴巴、輝達等都加入 RISC-V 基金會。在印度政府的大力資助下,RISC-V 更成為印度的國家指令集。微軟亦以 OpenPOWER Foundation 的名義作為領軍, 推動其 Power微處理器架構發展,今年更宣布併入Linux基金會, 並以開源Power晶片的指令集架構(ISA) ,來實現無需支付專利費用Power晶片。

當前如ARM、Intel這類大型商業晶片供應商霸佔不少平板電腦、智能電話的處理器市場,而在IoT即將大行其道之下,晶片的需求更是與日俱增。 RISC-V、Power晶片等「開源硬體」的出現,正正能夠帶入晶片界的競爭,使得整體開發成本降低,在經濟方面有莫大的裨益,而開發成本降低有助推進如人工智能、超級電腦、資料分析以及 IoT 科技發展。

「開源硬體」亦解決當前一些地緣政治的問題:美中雙方的科技戰愈演愈烈,但在這些兩大政治勢力衝突底下,不少環球軟件、硬件公司遭殃。 2018年的中興事件以及華為事件, 更令中國不得不尋找新的硬件出路。

以RISC-V 基金會中國顧問委員會主席方之熙之言:

 一條就是關起門來自己做,典型的就是龍芯。因晶片還是商品,效能再高,沒人用就沒有價值,所以必須有相應的生態系統發揮價值。第二條路就是跟在別人後面,中國有許多公司做 x86、Arm、IBM Power 晶片,在某些特殊領域,用這些指令集架構確實可以做一些事,但受 ISA 所屬公司知識產權(IP)的控制,很難取得成功。

而 RISC-V 這類「開源硬體」 沒有知識產權的限制,使得如中國、印度等這類未有能力完全自製晶片的國家,得以在一定的共同基礎上,各自開發其晶片,減少對外來科技的依賴。這以使得各地的科技發展,能夠減少因為地緣政治的改變,而受到的各種負面影響。



我們 ONEs Software 是一家香港的軟件開發公司,致力於通過我們專業的技術,為企業設計出最合適的軟件。如果您有興趣,歡迎與我們聯繫一起探討,為您的企業成長注入新的源動力。 更多資訊可以留意 ONES Publication 定期發佈的文章,亦可以聯絡我們,我們的網址是:

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